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Types of indicators

Mixed indicators contain several colour indicators and also inert dyes. As a result, depending on the concentration of hydronium ions c(H3O+), i.e. depending on the pH value, multiple colour changes occur during the transition from an acidic to a basic solution. This allows one to assign a colour to each unit on a pH scale of 1 to 14.

This can be observed, for example, when using unit test paper, where the indicators are applied to a carrier (paper). If one now adds a drop of the indicator solution to a sample or dips a piece of the indicator paper into the solution, the colour will change if it is not a neutral solution - pay someone to do my math homework . This colour can now be compared with a colour scale to obtain the pH value.

Such indicators, which show a different colour for each pH value, are also called universal indicators.

Other indicators

In nature, too, numerous organic substances can change their colour with the change of the pH value.

Red cabbage, for example, turns red when acidified with vinegar. The more alkaline the "red cabbage water" is during cooking, the more the colour changes - do my statistics homework . For this reason, red cabbage is also called "Blaukraut" in some parts of Germany.

Other plants such as delphiniums, cranberries or geraniums also contain such organic dyes as anthocyanins, which react to a change in pH value with a change in colour. In hydrangeas, the flower colour depends on the pH value of the soil. On very acidic soils (pH < 4.5) the flowers are purple, on neutral and alkaline soils mostly pink or red. Blue flowers on acidic soils are due to an aluminium complex of the dye - do my assignment . Thus, blue flowers can be maintained by fertilising with the double salt alum (KAl(SO4)2), as this salt reacts acidly when dissolved in water and aluminium ions are offered.

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